Understanding a Friesian Horse’s paper

When buying a Friesian horse, the official KFPS paper can be of much value. Although a Friesian is usually bought as a riding animal and life-long companion, it is still interesting to know something about him/her. When buying a Friesian for breeding purposes, this becomes even more crucial. Let us start with the different books that are found with reference to South Africa.

Hulpboek: This is a closed book that was created in order to collect as many mares with locally confirmed linage into the KFPS at the time of conception of the FPSSA. In 1988 it was decided to split from the Friesperd Telersgenootskap and form a direct allegiance with the mother studbook, the KFPS. Many mares had lineage from the original stock that had been imported into RSA over the last 40 years (see History of the Friesian in South Africa).

Bijboek III: This is a closed book that was created for South Africa to allow non-lineage confirmed mares to be taken into a subsidiary book during the start of the FPSSA. As nothing was known of these lineages, it will take much longer for the offspring of these horses to breed up into the higher books. This will be discussed later. The colour of this paper is blue.

Bijboek II: This is an active register for animals with early unknown parentage, and those that have been bred by stallions without a breeding permission. The colour of this paper is blue.

Bijboek I: This is an active register for animals that are produced by stallions that have Foalbook breeding permission, and/or out of mares that are not in the main studbook. The colour of this paper is brown.

Main Studbook: This is the main studbook in which all the animals have been judged by Dutch judges and have been found to be good enough for this registration, including the confirmed breeding lines studbook parents. The colour of this paper is yellow/green.

More detailed information can be found in the KFPS Registration Regulations.

The following information is found at the top of the paper (in order, from left to right):

The FPS register: This indicates which of the above registers the animal is found in. Vb denotes the Foalbook, i.e. that the animal has not been presented for studbook inspection yet, or was not taken into the particular register for whatever reason. Ster (star) is awarded if an animal posses a variety of exceptional traits. This is awarded for both conformation and movement. This will be explained later along with the premies.

Sex: Mare (merrie), Stallion (Hengst), gelding (reun).

Registration number: Every Friesian in the studbook’s various registers has a registration number. The last nine digits are known as the life-number. This always starts with the four digits of the birth year, followed by another five digits. This number can be used to look all that particular horse’s information up on the official KFPS studbook’s website (www.fps-studbook.com).

Chip number: The number of the microchip that was implanted at the first foal inspection.

Date of birth

Inteelcoefficient: This is an indication of inbreeding of the particular animal. As the Friesian studbook is a closed studbook, the risk of inbreeding is a reality. An inbreeding coefficient of more that 5% is frowned upon.

Registered name: This is the name of the animal when it was registered after birth. The name can NEVER been changed in the studbook.

The second line of the paper is made up of the following (in order from left to right):

Dates of presentation and outcomes: Vb means taken up as a foal, star means awarded star at that date.

Kleur (colour): Black. If there were any acceptable white markings these will be noted as Afgetekening Toegestaan. If there were unacceptable white markings, these will be noted as Aftekening niet Toegestaan.

Schofthoogte (height of the withers): given in cm. Preferable heights will be dealt with in the next section.

Dates of premies awarded

The last block will be the information about the original breeder, and then all the various owners (with addresses and dates).

The last and largest section is dedicated to the family tree. This will always go back 4 generations. When a Friesian horse is said to have a full paper, it means that the last 3 generations of the dam line are all Ster or higher. The sire’s line will already be full papered as this is a prerequisite for approval.

Understanding designations, premies and predicates:

Once a foal is born, the Studbook is notified in writing. The foal is then admitted into the Voorlopige Veulen Register (VVR) / Preliminary Foal Register. No paper is issued, but the detailed information is maintained until the first presentation of the foal. This should be done before the foal turns 1 year of age. It will then be admitted into the Foal Book. At this time a premie (premium) will be awarded by the judges using a mathematical evaluation scale. There are 3 premies, namely first, second, third. If the foal does not receive enough marks, it will not be awarded a premie (niet gepremied). The premie is a way to evaluate the young foal, and also the breeding ability of the sire (i.e. the stallion). It should be remembered, however, that this premie is not the defining aspect of a foal. Two great examples are Teade 392 (given a 3rd premie) and Minste 367 (niet gepremied). Both have become great 1stpremie stallions, approved on offspring. However, the foal premie remains a helpful guide to both breeders and the Studbook as a means to evaluate the stallion.

At the age of 3 a Friesian horse should be presented for studbook judging. There is a difference in the way the young mares and stallions are judged at this point. The stallions are shown (at this time in Holland and the USA only) at the Eerste Besigtiging (First Viewing) at the beginning of December. Here the best will be awarded Ster (Star) and will be invited into the next round of viewing. The stallions will not receive a premie again unless they are selected as an approved studbook breeding stallion. There are 2 more rounds (Second and Third Viewing). This is done during the Stallion Show at Leeuwarden on the first weekend in January. The best stallions are then invited to partake in the final 70 day test. After this time, a stallion that has accrued enough marks will become an approved breeding stallion. His name is changed (and his number added) and he is admitted into the studbook. All other stallions will remain in the Foal Book permanently. All approved stallions will again be evaluated once his first offspring reach the age of 3 years old. Depending on whether he has improved the breed, he will either receive permanent breeding approval or be disapproved. Upon disapproval, the stallion will be removed from the main studbook and placed back into the Foal Book.

Studbook status: From the year that a mare is three years of age she can be entered in the Studbook register. To this end the horse needs to be inspected and meet the minimum requirements for exterior, movement, height at the withers (minimum height 1.54m), and markings (horses with non-allowed markings are not entered in the Studbook).

Ster (Star) predicate: The Ster predicate is awarded during inspections of horses from the year they are three years of age. To be considered for the Ster predicate the horse needs to meet minimum requirements for exterior, movement (in hand), and height at the withers (minimum height 1.55m/15.1 hands). The Ster predicate may only be awarded to mares in any of the Studbook registers.

Kroon (Crown) predicate: The Kroon predicate is a predicate to which exterior and sport aptitude requirements apply. Selection for the (preliminary) Kroon predicate takes place during the Central Mare Show/Centrale Keuring in Holland and at our National shows here in RSA. This group will be selected from the mares that were awarded a first premie during inspections in the same year. The requirements for consideration for the (preliminary) Kroon predicate are:

– minimum age is three years old.

– for permanent Kroon status the mare must complete an IBOP or ABFP test before the end of the calendar year following the year in which she made preliminary Kroon with a minimum score of 77.0 points and an average of 7 for walk and trot. If the Sport predicate is earned within that time frame that will also convert the preliminary-Kroon status into permanent Kroon status.

– Minimum height at the withers 1.58m.

Model predicate: The Model predicate is a predicate to which exterior and sport aptitude requirements apply. The best mares of the population are considered for the awarding of the (preliminary) Model status. This takes place at the respective inspections throughout the country and at the National shows and will be from the group of mares that received at least 2 first premies within the year. The requirements for the (preliminary) Model status are:

– minimum age is 7 years old.

– the mare must have produced a foal or have a foal on her.

– for permanent Model status the mare must complete an IBOP or ABFP test before the end of the calendar year following the year in which she made preliminary Model with a minimum score of 77.0 points and an average of 7 for walk and trot. If the Sport predicate is earned within that time frame that will also convert the preliminary-Model status into permanent Model status.

– minimum height at the withers 1.60m.

Sport predicate: The Sport predicate can be awarded to mares, geldings, and stallions that achieve good results in competitive sport. The Sport predicate can only be obtained based on results achieved at shows registered with the Koninklijke Nederlands Hippische Sportfederatie/Royal Dutch Equestrian Sport Federation

(KNHS), or an affiliated body within South Africa. The scores registered will determine qualification for the Sport predicate. The minimum requirements for awarding of the Sport predicate are:

a. dressage: Z1 +5 (medium with 15 winning points)

b. show driving: cat. I & II honor class/ereclass and cat. III open class/open classes in one season six placements as prize winner in the green season

c. driving (dressage): Z +10

d. driving (combined): class 3 +10.

Preferent for mares: Mares registered in the Foal Book and the Studbook may become Preferent on offspring. The Preferent predicate needs to be requested with KFPS.

Preferent status may be requested both by the owner of a mare or by the owner of the offspring. Preferent status may also be requested posthumously. Preferent status for mares is granted when the mare in question has produced at least four quality horses.

Quality horses are considered:

a. Ster or Model mares.

b. Ster geldings.

c. Foal Book Ster stallions.

d. Studbook stallions.

e. Stallions that made the second viewing of the stallion inspection.

Preferent for stallions: The Preferent predicate can be awarded to stallions that have a lasting, special influence on the breed. For consideration for Preferent the quality of the offspring will be tested for the breeding-goal characteristics. The lasting value of a stallion is evaluated based on the predicates achieved by offspring multiplied with a determined weighing value. Stallions who have achieved a total of 1.000 points are declared Preferent, without intervention of inspection and/or board. Application for the Preferent predicate can occur when a stallion has achieved a total of 700 points.

The application is evaluated by inspection. The inspection sends its advice to the board and the board decides whether the particular stallion becomes Preferent. The weighing values are as follows: Ster 1, Kroon 5, Model 10, Sport 15, Preferent 15, Prestatie 20, Studbook stallion 25, Studbook stallion approved based on progeny test 50, Dam of a Studbook stallion 20.

Performance-dam/Prestatiemoeder predicate: The predicate Performance dam/Prestatiemoeder is awarded to mares that have produced three direct offspring that were awarded the Sport predicate.

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