History of the Lusitano Horse
Horses have inhabited the Iberian Peninsula for around 25 000 years. This is evident from the neolithic cave paintings found in the area. Amongst these must have been the ancestor of the Lusitano, although this ancestor is yet to be identified. In the 19040’s, the famed Portuguese historian, and breed enthusiast, Dr. Ruy d’ Andrade hypothesized that the Sorraia breed was the ancestor of the Lusitano, and this was accepted until the mid 2000s when mitochondrial DNA studies showed that the Lusitano and Sorraia were of the same ancestor of Southern Iberian horses. Studies of the Sorraia maternal lineage, however, has shown its influence in Iberian breeds dates to the Middle Ages, and thus unlikely to have much of an influence on the Lusitano which dates back to at least 800BC.
In 800BC, the Celts formed an alliance with the Iberians horsemen. These were the famed horsemen with amazing horses. Legend held that the mares of the area were sired by the wind and thus handed over their swiftness and agility to their foals. Xenophon, writing at around 370BC, was a great admired of the advanced horsemanship and riding techniques that were employed by the Lusitanians. Later, the Romans invaded and set up stud farms, and eventually the only area the Roman Empire did not conquer was Lusitania. Instead, they signed a treaty which allowed the Lusitanians to be held as Romans provided their cavalry fought for Rome.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, horses moved continually between Spain and Portugal, and horses from the studs of Andalusia were used to improve the Portuguese cavalry. Portugal’s successful restoration war against Spain (1640–1668) was in part based on mounted troops riding war horses of Spanish blood. During the reign of Philip III of Portugal (also Philip IV of Spain), Portuguese horse breeding reached its lowest point. The Spanish passed laws to halt the country’s production of cavalry horses, and what stud farms did exist were run in secrecy with horses smuggled or stolen from Spain. These secret farms, however, provided the base for the modern Lusitano. In 1662, when Charles the II of England married Catharine of Braganza of Portugal, the royal dowry included Portugal’s Tangier and Bombay garrisons. These garrisons included large groups of Portuguese cavalry, mounted on Iberian horses.
The numbers of the Lusitano, especially of the Alter Real strain, continued to remain low, The Alter Real is a strain of the Lusitano which is bred only at the Alter Real State Stud in Portugal. The stud was founded in 1748 by the Portuguese royal Family to provide horses for the national riding academy and royal use. The Portuguese School of Equestrian Art (Escola Portuguesa de Arte Equestre) uses these horses exclusively in their performances. The strain was developed from 300 Iberian mares imported from Spain in 1747. When Napoleon invaded Spain in the early 19th century, the Alter Real strain deteriorated due to the introduction of Arabian, Thoroughbred, Spanish-Norman and Hanoverian blood. However, in the 19th and 20th centuries the strain was re-established with the further introduction of Spanish blood. In the early 20th century, as Portugal renounced its monarchy, the Alter Real strain faced extinction, as records were burned, stallions were gelded and the stud discontinued. The last remaining stud, the Alter Real, was run by the Portuguese army. They auctioned their last 2 stallions in the 1920’s. Fortunately, Dr. Ruy d’ Andrade saved the breed by buying the 2 stallions and several mares. He started to collect the remaining breeding stock of the Alter Real from farmers as well as a stock of horses that were in a protected monastery in the Jerez region of Spain.
He manged, through a high degree of linebreeding, to restore the population of the Alter Real population. Once he was able to re-establish the strain, he turned his herd over to the Portuguese Ministry of Agriculture in 1942, at which time the stud was reopened. The Portuguese state has maintained ownership of the stud, and continues to produce horses for use in high school dressage.
After studying the lineage of the Lusitano horse, Ruy d’ Andrade later acquired the stallion Principe VIII from Don Francisco Chica who was a well-known breeder in Spain. Principe VIII was brought back to Portugal and became the foundation sire of the Andrade line. Today, he appears in the pedigree of every Andrade horse. The Andrade stud has also used Veiga horses in their breeding programs, most notably the stallion Tovador.
The Veiga line is much older than the Andrade line. In the Portuguese studbook, the stallion Agareno is the foundation stallion of the Veiga line, although it seems that many farmers that bred hosrses of the Veiga line also used Alter Real stallions prior to this stallion. It also appears as if the Arabian stallion, Fehran, also played a role in the development of the Veiga line. The Veiga line was based on line breeding almost until its detriment. Then, the use of the great Andrade stallion, Firme (a son of Principe III), brought new blood into the line and an improvement of the Lusitano horse in general. This was a brilliant move and now famous Veiga horses from that injection of clean blood include the great stallions, Nilo, Novilheiro and Opus 72 – all sons of Firme. Bullfighting has maintained the quality and agility of the Veiga line in particular.
Prior to the 1960s, the Iberian-type horse was called the Andalusian in both Portugal and Spain. In 1966, the Lusitano name was adopted by Portugal after the establishment of their own studbook (the APSL) and a separation from the Spanish, which maintained their new studbook under the PRE. The revolutions of Portugal’s African colonies resulted in the near economic collapse of Portugal. The landed class attracted political agitators, estates were vacated, and stud farms were broken up and many horses were sold to Spain. However, the best lines were saved through the efforts of breeders, and breeding soon increased. The breed has been revitalised with great effort and is once again becoming recognised as it once was – as one of the great athletic and sport horse of the equine world. Novilheiro, the great show jumping legend of John Whitacker, has never been overtaken in winnings by any other showjumper to date.
The Portuguese stud book recognizes six horses (five stallions and one mare) that are called the “heads of lineage”. These six horses are the foundation horses of the three main breed lineages: Andrade, Veiga and Coudelaria Nacional (Portuguese State Stud). Although each line meets breed standards, they differ from each other in individual characteristics. The six foundation horses are:
- Agareno, a 1931 Veiga stallion, out of Bagocha, by Lidador
- Primorosa, a 1927 Dominquez Hermanos stallion, out of Primorosa II, by Presumido
- Destinado, a 1930 Dominquez Hermanos stallion, out of Destinada, by Alegre II
- Marialva II, a 1930 Antonio Fontes Pereira de Melo stallion, out of Campina, by Marialva
- Regedor, a 1923 Alter Real stallion, out of Gavina, by Gavioto
- Hucharia, a 1943 Coulderaria Nacional mare, out of Viscaina, by Cartujano
The Lusitano has continued to improve from its near-extinction and today rates as one of the great sporting horse breeds. In 1995, Felix Brasseur drove a Lusitano four-in-hand team in his FEI World Driving Cup and the 1996 World Championships. in 2002, the World Equestrian Games bronze team – who went on to win silver at 2004 Olympic Games – included a Lusitano.
Lusitano Breed Standard
- TYPE: Of middling weight (around 500 kg’s ) medium shaped, sub-convex (rounded in shape), with a square shaped silhouette.
- HEIGHT: measured at withers using a measuring stick at age of 6:
Mares average height – 1.55 m
Stallion average height – 1.60 m
- HAIR: The most frequently found are all shades of grey and bay.
- TEMPERAMENT: Noble, generous and ardent but always gentle and long suffering.
- MOVEMENTS: Agile, high stepping, forward thrusting, gentle and very easy to ride.
- APTITUDE: A natural tendency for concentration, well disposed for High School exercises and highly courageous and enthusiastic in “gineta” (combat, hunting, bullfighting, herding, etc) exercises.
- HEAD: Well proportioned, of medium length, narrow and dry, relatively unpronounced lower jaw and relatively long in cheek with a slightly sub-convex profile and upwards curving forehead (over eyebrow bones) huge elliptical, live, expressive confident eyes. Ears are of average length, delicate, narrow and expressive.
- NECK: Of average length, arched with a slight hairline, with a narrow junction to the head, broad at the base and perfectly positioned in respect of the shoulder blades rising from the withers without any marked depression.
- WITHERS: Well defined and long, with a smooth transition between the spine and neck, always slightly more raised than the croup. In fully grown males it is covered in fat but is always clearly visible through the shoulder blades.
- CHEST: Medium, deep and muscular.
- RIBCAGE: Well developed, long and deep, with ribs obliquely arched into the spinal column, providing a short, full flank.
- SHOULDER BLADES: long, oblique and muscular.
- BACK: Upright, leaning horizontally providing a smooth union between the withers and loins.
- LOINS: Short, broad, muscular, slightly convex, well connected to the back and croup with which they form a continuous and perfectly harmonious line.
- CROUP: Strong and rounded, well proportioned, slightly oblique, identical in length and breadth, convex, harmonious profile and with a relatively slight point of the hip providing the croup with an elliptical transversal section. The tail follows the curve of the croup and is comprised of silky, long and abundant hair.
Muscled harmoniously inclined forelegs: Upper leg is upright and muscular;
Dry broad knee;
Dry shin bones with well-defined tendons;
Dry relatively large fetlocks with smallish joints;
Relatively long and oblique pasterns;
Well formed, shapely and proportioned hooves without being excessively open and slight coronet;
Short and convex buttock;
Muscular, shortish thighs pointing in such a way as for the patella to be positioned on the same vertical line as the point of the hip;
Longish leg, positioning the hock in line with the vertical part of the buttock; Broad, strong and dry hocks; The angle of the latter members are relatively closed.